In the biomedical model of pain tissue damage is required to cause pain. The biomedical model of pain is outdated and the general public should look to replace it with the biopsychosocial model where tissue damage can be independent of pain experience.
The biopsychosocial model takes into account the life experience of the person. We all know really that we can feel emotional pain, that we can experience a sore head when we can’t figure stuff out. The relationships in our life, the concepts we hold, the narratives we grow up into, the friends family and colleagues who bombard us with message about us and the inner monologue that tells us what things mean and how we are doing e.g. how much I have lost are all able to result in pain pathways being activated without tissue damage.
Pain can be learnt and can be kept to accompany us throughout life as a dynamic normal. There are many different ways the human being can feel pain than tissue damage.